Ka-50 "Black Shark" attack helicopter
Ka-50 "Black Shark" is a single-seat attack helicopter for destroying armored vehicles, slow-speed air targets and manpower on the battlefield. In 2011, KTE-52 simulator for Ka-52 helicopter is released to potential clients.
Coaxial Ka-50 helicopter has two three-blade rotors of 14.5-m diameter each. The polymeric composite blade is attached to the hub by a torsion bar. The airframe features perfect aerodynamic outlines, mid-set stub wing, retractable three-leg landing gear and empennage of a fixed-wing aircraft type. The pilot cockpit is fully armored.
The emergency pilot escape system, comprising an ejection seat, saves the pilot within the entire flight speed and altitude range. A set of improved survivability means allows Ka-50 to attack successfully the specified targets and to survive under intensive fire counteraction.
A coaxial rotor helicopter features: higher power-to-weight ratio due to the absence of power losses for a tail rotor; 1.5...2 times lower inertia moments of the helicopter; ability to perform a pedal (flat) turn within the full flight speed range; the best vertical rate of climb and hovering ceiling.
The load factor of 3.5G combined with the above unique qualities allows the helicopter to perform combat maneuvers within the minimum air area and the shortest time to gain an advantageous attack position.
The Ka-50 helicopter is fitted with observation and sighting systems together with navigation, communication and other systems to enable one crew-member to pilot and engage hostile forces in combat. A combination of various armaments to a maximum combat weapon load of 2 tons are selected according to the combat mission, including anti-tank missiles, unguided aerial rockets of different calibres, air-to-air missiles, guns, bombs and other weapons.
The helicopter has small mid-mounted wings fitted with four underwing suspension units and wingtip countermeasures pods. Up to 12 Vichr supersonic antitank missiles with unified warheads against ground armoured and air targets can be mounted on the helicopter's two underwing external stores. There can be also attached stores with 23-mm guns or additional fuel tanks.
The missiles are automatically guided to the selected air or ground target using laser beam riding and feature a high degree of jam resistance. The Vichr missile has a target hit probability close to one, against a tank at a range of up to 8 km. The kill probability is also rated very highly with the capability of penetrating all types of armour including active armour up to 900 mm thick.
The Ka-50 is armed with a 2A42 quick-firing 30-mm gun which has an unrestricted azimuth and elevation range mounting for use against airborne or ground targets. The gun is mounted near the centre of gravity of the helicopter for consistent accuracy. The gun is equipped with 460 rounds of ammunition, two types being carried, high-fragmentation and explosive incendiary rounds and armour-piercing rounds. The pilot selects the type of ammunition in flight. The weight of the ammunition is 0.39 kg each round, the muzzle velocity is 980 m/s and the range is up to 4 km. The gun provides an angular firing accuracy of 2 to 4 mrad.
Total weight of the weapons on the wing stores is 2,300 kg. From the point of view of the weapons power the "Black Shark" helicopter is superior to all existing combat helicopters.
The on-board avionics suite ensures helicopter piloting and control including the use of satellite navigational system, 24 hours a day, in anytime of the year. The observation, search and sighting systems comprising TV, laser and IR equipment are capable to detect targets and to fire the full arsenal of weapons in day and night conditions.
The coaxial rotor design provides a hovering ceiling of 4,000 metres and vertical rate of climb of 10 metres per second at an altitude of 2,500 metres. The rotor blades are made from polymer materials. The hingeless main rotor head requires no lubrication.
The coaxial-rotor configuration results in moments of inertia values relative to vertical and lateral axes being between 1.5 to 2 times less than the values found in conventionally designed combat single rotor helicopters with tailrotors. Absence of the tail rotor enables the helicopter to perform flat turns within the entire flight speed range. A maximum vertical g-load of 3.5 combined with low moments of inertia give the Ka-50 a high level of agility and manoeuvrability.
Two separately mounted engines at a maximum distance reduce the probability of their simultaneous damage. The powerplant has an operational life of 30 minutes without oil, giving the pilot the opportunity to land in a safe location in the event that the oil system is damaged in combat. The helicopter also has duplicated and stand-by hydraulic and power systems and main control circuits.
Extensive all-round armour installed in the cockpit protects the pilot against 12.7 mm armour piercing bullets and 23 mm projectile fragments. The rotor blades are rated to withstand several hits of ground-based automatic weapons providing the capability of safe flight completion after sustaining impact.
Protection of fuel tanks against explosion hazards and fuel leakage is provided by porous fuel tank fillers and fuel tank self-sealing covers, and a comprehensive fire extinguishing system is installed. Engine exhaust heat screens reduce the thermal signature of the helicopter and flare dispensers protect the helicopter against heatseeking missiles.
The Ka-50 is the world's first operational helicopter with a rescue ejection system, which allows pilot to escape at all altitudes and speeds. The K-37-800 Rocket Assisted Ejection System is manufactured by the Zvezda Research and Production Enterprise Joint Stock Company in the Moscow Region. The seat operates by pulling the pilot from the helicopter cabin using a solid-propellant rocket motor. The system comprises the seat, a control unit and a pullout rocket motor. The seat is fitted with a survival pack containing an NAZ-7M survival kit, a life raft and a PS-37A parachute system. The seat provides safe forced emergency escape from helicopters in the speed range 0 to 350 km/hour and at altitude 0 to 6,000 metres. The seat also provides safe ejection during inverted flight (at speeds 0 to 330 km/h with zero vertical velocity) at a minimum altitude of 90 metres. Pilot is ejected in max. six second.
Ka-50 is fitted with radar warning receiver, electronic warfare system and chaff and flare dispenser UV-26.
Built in test and diagnostics equipment ensures fast maintenance turnaround time. Under operational conditions the helicopter has a 12-day combat availability with minimum maintenance during off-base deployment.
Multi-role all-weather combat Ka-52 "Alligator" helicopter is a twin-seat derivative of the attack Ka-50. It is intended for a wide range of combat tasks in daytime and night conditions, in any time of the year with the use of all destruction means of the Ka-50. This is a commander helicopter of the army aviation aimed at increasing the efficiency of group combat helicopter operations.
Coaxial-type Ka-52 helicopter differs from its predecessor by a wider nose part and twin-seat crew cockpit where the pilot ejection seats are arranged side-by-side. Both pilots have full controls of the helicopter without any limitations. The pilot cockpit is armored. The helicopter can be used as a trainer. High flying qualities of the coaxial helicopter combined with unique manoeuvrability allow the helicopter to perform combat maneuvers within the minimum air area and the shortest time to gain an advantageous attack position.
Numerous weapons options for the helicopter are achieved by arranging a movable high-speed firing gun starboard of the helicopter, and by six available external wing stores with different combination of anti-tank missiles, rockets, "air-to-air" missiles, gun ammunition of a container type and bombs of various caliber. From the point of view of the weapons power the "Alligator" is comparable with the "Black Shark" helicopter and is superior to all existing combat helicopters.
The on-board multifunctional avionics suite ensures round-the-clock helicopter piloting, navigational and combat tasks in anytime of the year. The avionics suite is comprised of a multiplexed, multi-level digital computer-based system having large storage capacity and high speed. Observation, search and targeting systems comprising head-mounted display are used for round-the-clock and all-weather detection of specified targets and their attack using optical, TV, laser, IR and radar equipment.
ISRAEL AIRCRAFT Industries is also working on another Russian helicopter, the Ka-50-2 Erdogan ('born to be a fighter'). With Kamov, the prime contractor, IAI is bidding to win Turkey's $3 billion contract for the supply of 145 attack helicopters to the Turkish Army.
The partnership was founded in 1997, at the last Paris Air Salon and was a late entrant into the contest, with the objective of uniting "two technologies in to one helicopter," according to Kamov's President Dr Sergei Mikhaev.
Over the past year, the first stage of the bid has been met, as has a second stage of requirements. These included a tandem-seat configuration of the aircraft, which other contenders - the AH-64D Longbow Apache, Eurocopter Tiger, Augusta A 129 Mangusta and Bell AH-1Z King Cobra could already boast - as a result Kamov redesigned the side-by-side configuration of the cockpit areas. The Turkish Government also requested a GIAT-designed turret gun, which has now been integrated. A model on its stand further illustrated this unique unit, which drops down from underneath the helicopter and rotates 180deg.
The Ka-50-2 can also feature Russian-made VIKHR or Rafael Spike anti-tank, rockets and air-to-air missiles. Both companies have their own responsibilities - Kamov will look after the helicopter's airframe, while IAI Lahav is developing the avionics and weapons delivery system, as well as ensuring it meets NATO standards (and is responsible for logistics support). Successful flight tests were conducted for the Turkish Government in April - they lasted a week and ten Turkish pilots flew the helicopter.
The new tandem-seat version will be demonstrated in Turkey within the next two months. Transfer technology will not be a problem, according to IAI Chairman Moshe Keret, as there are currently approximately 150 Turkish enterprises working with their counterparts in Russia and Israel. Avionics and aircraft construction would take place in Turkey, at Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). Turkey would build 145 helicopters over ten years, in three batches with work commencing in 2002.
March 31, 2011, According to the company's information, CSTS Dinamica has created full mission simulator KTE-52 for Ka-52 all weather combat helicopter crew. The helicopter's deliveries to Russian air forces have started in 2010. AEX.ru
The company has received an order from Kamov design bureau regarding conduction of research and development work on creation of educational and training system for Ka-52 helicopter in 2010. The system will provide beginning-to-end training of flight crew and engineers, it includes the full mission simulator KTE-52 and automated education system for initial classroom training.
"KTE-52 simulator created by CSTS Dinamica, provides opportunities for training and transition training of flight crews on all main objectives connected with piloting, navigation and tactical employment of air weapons of Ka-52. The simulator enables practicing the crew's actions in all flight operation conditions and special cases involving technical failures, pilotage mistakes and adverse weather flight conditions ", - the company's press-service reported.
The simulator's configuration is stipulated by complexity and multifunctionality of Ka-52 helicopter being new command vehicle of Army air force. Simulator's cockpit mockup made by Arseniev-based Progress, corresponds exactly with the cockpit of real serial helicopter by dimensions and placing of operation control, cockpit panels, consoles, panel boards, etc. Real operation control of Ka-52 is used on the simulator. Simulator's display system is six-channel projective screen system with spherical display which provides viewing angle from 90 degrees to +90 degrees horizontally and from 30 degrees to +53 degrees vertically. Hardware and software system, including computer which enables video-channel for imitation of night-vision goggles, software for generation of scenery image, virtual reality goggles and laser tracker, is used for realization of night-vision mode. Acoustic atmosphere imitation system is also included in the simulator. "KTE-52 project is emblematic for Dinamica, it is the first order from Kamov for us and we consider our cooperation experience to be successful", - said Andrey Byushges, chief designer of Dinamica. - "New technologies have been used during development of this simulator due to complexity of all weather combat helicopter Ka-52, in particular, new technology of creating equipment adapter unit, which is one of the simulator's key elements. New unit is a compact complete module installed in the simulator's service compartment. We intend to use this technology in our future projects".
KTE-52 simulator is designed by CSTS Dinamica in cooperation with Kamov (initial data) and Konstanta-design (software). The company is assembling the second simulator at the moment in the network of Kamov's order. Russian Army air force will receive new combat helicopters along with educational and training system following the successful results of research and development work.
"Simulators for Ka-52 will become an important part of pilot training for mastering the new combat helicopters in Russian air forces. The first four such helicopters have been delivered to the Russian air forces in 2010. Progress will deliver another 10 serial Ka-52s to the air forces in 2011. This work pace is expected to be kept in 2012-2013. Delivery of 36 Ka-52s is planned according to contract signed with Ministry of Defense in 2009", - Dinamica reported.
Number and type of the engines
Engine power, h.p.
TO weight (normal), kg
Rotor diameter, m
Flight speed (in diving), km/h
Vertical rate of climb at 2500m altitude, m/s
Vertical load factor
Practical flight range, km
Speed (average), m/s
Firing range, m
Armor piercing capability, mm
Movable gun model
Gun ammunition, rounds
Weight of a round, kg
Muzzle velocity, m/s
Sighting range, m
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