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南非“猎豹”战斗机

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In comparison with Dassault's successful Mirage series and other overseas derivatives, the Cheetah fighter is perhaps the least known. Unfamiliar to many, the Cheetah of the southern hemisphere was born in secrecy for political causes.

相对于达索(Dassault)公司畅销全球的“幻影Ⅲ”(Mirage III)系列战斗机和其它海外派生型号,产于南半球的南非“猎豹”(Cheetah)的来历,或许并不太为人熟识。对很多人来说,它的出现带着一些神秘和政治色彩。

Caused by the long ongoing Apartheid policy, in November 1977, an international arms embargo, including combat aircraft and spare parts, was imposed against South Africa by the United Nations. Meanwhile, the increasing border conflicts posed to threaten South Africa's security, a mid-life upgrade of the survivors of 74 aging Mirage IIIs received during 1963-70 became SAAF's high priority.
  热门作战飞机:
歼20战斗机, 歼15战斗机,
轰-6战神, 翔龙侦察机, 枭龙

Under embargo, the state-owned firm of Atlas Aviation (now Denel Aviation as an aerospace group division under Denel (Pty) Ltd.) was the sole answer to the ambitious programme, which aimed at extensively modifying the Mirage III into an efficient combat aircraft. Planned upgrades included a modified airframe, a new engine and better avionics. Programmed launched with the assistance of Israel's IAI (officially denied) in 1984, as the Cheetah's strong resemblance of the IAI Kfir indicates possible Israeli involvement. First prototype redesignated "Cheetah" was rolled out in July 1986, it was a conversion of a Mirage III-D2Z two-seated trainer, and its initial flight took place in the same year. In the following summer, different conversions of varied Mirage IIIs became operational.

基于南非政府长期奉行的种族隔离主义,联合国于一九九七年十一月对南非强制实施包括战机及其零件在内的武器禁运。与此同时,渐增的边境武装冲突正威胁着南非的安全。因此,正在老化落伍的南非空军第二代战斗机──一九六三至七○年从法国所购买的七十四架所剩存下的大部份“幻影”Ⅲ,急需进行更新。在国际制裁下,将“幻影”Ⅲ大幅度修改为高效率的作战飞机的大胆方案,只能由当时国营的阿特拉斯公司(Atlas Aviation),现为丹奈尔公司(Denel Aviation)所承担。而这些更新包括改良的机身,新的发动机,和更先进的电子设备。方案于一九八四年在以色列的秘密技术援助下开始实施,而“猎豹”和以色列“幼狮”(Kfir)外表之酷似大大地说明了以色列介入的可能性。第一架定名为“猎豹”的原形机于一九八六年七月诞生,由一架“幻影”Ⅲ-D2Z双座教练机改成,在同年首飞成功。翌年夏天,从不同型号的“幻影”Ⅲ改装而成的各型“猎豹”开始投入使用。

In addition to a longer nose, aerodynamic modifications feature Kfir-style small nose side-strakes to prevent yaw departure at high AoA, a pair of fixed delta canards on the upper parts of the air intakes, dog-tooth outboard leading-edge extensions, and short fences replacing leading-edge slots. Two-seaters also have curved strakes below the cockpit along the lower fuselage.

除了一个加长的机鼻外,气动布局的修改包括:在机鼻两则装上可以防止在高攻角下脱离偏航的“幼狮”式小边条,一对固定在进气道的三角鸭翼,锯齿型外翼前缘,和代替前缘翼槽的短翼刀。双座机型亦会在驾驶舱下两侧加上曲线型边条。

Structural modifications focus on increasing the minimum life of the wing main spar (originally set at 800 hours) have carried through several proposed progressive stages of modification with the intention of reducing fatigue problems and providing a life extension of up to 1,250 hours for a complete refurbishment with a newly manufactured main spar. About 50% of airframe has been renewed.

机体结构上的修改着重于延长主翼梁的最低寿命(800小时),以进行多次渐进式阶段的改造方法来达到减少疲劳和延长寿命至1250小时的目标。此外,大约五成的机身接受了更新。

With the exceptions of two-seaters and R2Zs that are powered by a SNECMA Atar 9K50 turbojet engine (with a manufacturing license), the fact that other conversions retain SNECMA Atar 9C/9D turbojets is suggested by the absence of the large dorsal airscoop and smaller overfuselage airscoops of the Kfir (which is powered by the heavier, more powerful GE J79). Prior to the installation of the 9K50 in the two-seaters, the inlets and fuselage frames have to be modified. The installation of an IFR probe permits take-off with a lower fuel load and a relatively higher war-load. The probe is fixed to starboard side of the cockpit. Additionally, a single-point pressure refueling system is fitted, enabling times to be reduced (a maximum of five minutes for a clean aircraft).

 

除了装有斯奈克玛公司的“阿塔”(SNECMA Atar)9K-50型发动机(南非已得其生产权)的双座型和R2Z侦察型外,其余改型沿用原来的“阿塔”9C或9D型发动机,这个事实能够从它们缺乏“幼狮”机脊上较大和机身上两个较小的辅助进气口(因配备更重、更大功率的通用电气GE J79发动机之故)推测出来。为了在双座型上装上9K-50,它们的近气道以及机身结构将会进行一定的修改。而固定在驾驶舱右则靠后的受油管,可以令飞机在燃料少、武载多的情况下如常起飞。另外,一套新设的单点压力加油系统将减少飞机受油时间(油尽后加油需时最长五分钟)。

Improvements in performance include reductions in specific fuel consumption (4%), take-off distance (10-20%), minimum speed (100 KIAS), time to climb and increase in specific excess power, sustained load factor and sustained turn rate (15%). The canards permit the maximum take-off weight to be increased by 700 kg for a penalty of fewer than 5% in level acceleration time and maximum level speed. The uprated engine also allows a possible increase in payload/fuel capability or MTOW.

性能改进方面包括减少4%的耗油率,缩短10到20%的起飞距离,减少最低速度大约一百指示空速节,缩短爬升时间和增加单位剩余功率,提升15%的持续回转率与持续负载系数。虽然鸭翼的存在令最大起飞重量增加了七百公斤,但是最大平飞加速时间和最大平飞速度则相对地减少了5%。经改进的发动机亦有望令载荷/燃料容量或者最大起飞重量有所提升。

The Cheetah's avionics upgrade may be based on the Elbit System 81 (or possibly upgraded System 82) weapons delivery and navigation system fitted to the Kfir C2 (or C7). The HUD, CTU and ADCP operate via a MIL-STD-1553B databus and allow for pre-flight programming and HOTAS pilot operation. The nav/attack system includes an inertial system and options include a helmet-mounted sight (of indigenous or Israeli origin) and a radar altimeter. The Kfir-type drooped nose houses an Elta ELM-2001B radar ranging unit which has look-down/shoot-down capability, but lacks the ability to fire long-range air-to-air missiles and a mapping mode. Similar to the Kfir, the Cheetah features a fuselage plug ahead of the windscreen to accommodate the extra avionics. Self-protection systems include an SPS-2000 RWR system with antennae in the nose and in the trailing edge of the fin and a possible jammer system in the former rocket motor fairing. A new ECS is also introduced to provide adequate cooling for the revised avionics.
 

“猎豹”的电子设备更新,可能是以“幼师”C2(或C7)的埃尔比特(Elbit)81型系统(或可能是升级的82型)的导航及武器投射系统作为基础。顾及到起飞前的程序输入以及飞行员对双杆操纵(HOTAS)的操作,抬头显示器、计算机终端设备(Computer Terminal Unit)和武器控制/显示面版(armament control and display panel)将通过一个(MIL-STD-1553B)军用数据链接口进行工作。导航/攻击系统拥有一个惯性系统,选择包括一个(自研或源自以色列的)头盔瞄准器和雷达高度表。“幼师”式的下垂机头容纳了一个埃尔塔(Elta EL/M-2001B)搜索雷达。该雷达拥有下视/下射功能,但是缺乏发射远距空空导弹的能力和缺少地图绘制系统。像“幼狮”一样,“猎豹”风档前的机头部份曾被加长,为额外的电子设备提供了空间。自卫系统包括一个(SPS-2000)雷达预警接收系统,它的天线分别安装于机头和垂尾后沿的部位;系统还可能包括装在原为助推火箭整流罩的一个雷达干扰系统。一个新增的发动机控制系统将为改进后的电子设备提供足够的冷却。

Comparing to the Cheetah EZ, DZ differs mainly by having a longer nose, as that of the Kfir-T, with more obvious droop and containing avionics displaced from the spine. An undernose fairing directly aft of the pitot boom contains two radar warning antennae and a large cooling intake.

 

和“猎豹”EZ单座型比较,DZ双座型的主要区别在于:DZ型拥有一个(如“幼狮”教练型般的)更长和
下垂更明显的机头──它容纳了原来位于机脊的电子设备;在DZ型机头下、空速管桁架后的部位,安装着两
条雷达预警天线和一个较大的冷却进气口。

The Cheetah's fixed armament consists of two 30-mm DEFA cannon in fuselage underside. All armament of the Cheetah has been officially claimed to be of South African origin, including V3B Kukri/V3C Darter dogfight missiles, and potentially the newly developed medium and long-range AAMs such as the BVR-capable V4 R-Darter. Air-to-surface weapons include AS.30 ASM (possibly with an indigenous designator pod), cluster bombs, rockets and combined fuel/rocket pods. In addition to the five hardpoints inherited from the Mirage III, two more are fitted directly ahead of the wing/engine inlet trunking.

“猎豹”的固定武器是两门三十毫米“德发”(DEFA)机炮,位于机身腹下。其它机载武器均是官方自称的自研
国产设备,它们包括:V3B“库克利弯刀”(Kukri)/V3C“标枪手”(Darter)格斗导弹,还可能包括最新研制的中/远距空空导弹,如超视距的V4“R-标枪手”(R-Darter)。对地攻击武器有:AS.30空地导弹(可能配合上自制的瞄准吊舱)、集束炸弹、火箭发射器和燃料/火箭助推的结合型吊舱。除了保留“幻影”
Ⅲ原有的五个挂点外,主翼连接进气道的前方还会增加两个挂点。

Eight Mirage III-D2Z trainers converted to two-seat Cheetah D standard made up the first conversions and became operational in October 1987. At least 20 Cheetah DZ trainers modified from the Mirage III-BZs, DZs and D2Zs had been produced. These DZs were formerly operated by No. 85 Combat Flying School at Pietersburg (now moved to Hoedspruit), and they played a pathfinder role for the single-seat Cheetah EZ fighter/bomber.

在首轮更新,有八架“幻影”Ⅲ-D2Z教练机被转换成“猎豹”标准D型双座教练机,并于一九八七年十月投入使用。至少二十架“猎豹”DZ是从“幻影”Ⅲ-BZ、DZ和D2Z所改装成的。这些DZ型曾在彼得斯堡(Pietersburg)的第八十五飞行格斗学校服役(现迁至侯斯普瑞特(Hoedspruit)),为日后的“猎豹”EZ单座战斗轰炸机的设计提供了参考的例子。

More than 26 Cheetah EZ/RZs converted from the Mirage III-EZs, RZs, and R2Zs were thought be built. These single-seat aircraft retain their original engines for economic reasons as the Mirage III-RZ and R2Z conversions retain their original recce configurations. Originally in service with No. 5 Squadron, the Cheetah EZs were then transferred to No. 2 Squadron "Flying Cheetahs" at Hoedspruit (now moved to Louis Trichardt) which Mirage III-CZs, BZs and RZs were considered inconvertible and were retired from service in October 1990.

估计超过二十六架从“幻影”Ⅲ-EZ、RZ和R2Z改装成的“猎豹”EZ/RZ型曾被生产。这些单座型,因经济理由,保留着它们原置的发动机,而改自“幻影”Ⅲ-RZ和R2Z的“猎豹”RZ型还会保持原来的侦察配置。EZ型最早于南非空军的第五中队服役,后被调派到位于侯斯普瑞特,被称作“飞豹”的第二飞行中队(现迁至路易斯·崔卡特(Louis Trichardt)),用来替换不可改装,并于一九九○年十月退役的“幻影”Ⅲ-CZ,BZ和RZ,

By 1994, around 20 Cheetah DZs, EZs, RZs, and R2Zs were already retired and put up for sale. In order to fill the void, a programme to further upgrade the single-seat Cheetahs was revealed in April 1992, and a prototype based on a Mirage III-R2Z was built. This was the single-seat Cheetah C fighter, it features the advanced combat wing (ACW) which reduces supersonic drag and improves several aspects in performance. The ACW sports fixed wing leading-edge droop and an extended outer section of the wing to give greater tip chord. Other improvements include increased sustained turn rate by 14%, increased in-wing fuel capacity, increased MTOW and increased combat radius by 101 km. Wing-tip rails are added to mount two short-range AAMs for a weight penalty of 600 kg comparing to the Cheetah EZ.

直至一九九四年为止,约有二十架“猎豹”DZ、EZ、RZ和R2Z分别退役,并被公布出售。为了填补这些空缺,一个将单座“猎豹”作进一步升级的计划,于在一九九二年四月曝光,并有一架“幻影”Ⅲ-R2Z被改成了原形机。这便是“猎豹”的最新改型,C型“先进战翼”(ACW/Advanced Combat Wing)战机。它的“先进战翼”设计特别在于它的固定下垂的翼前缘,和被伸延的主翼外侧──以提供更大的翼尖弦长。其它性能改进有:持续回转率被提升了14%,增加了最大起飞重量、翼内的储油量以及额外的一百○一公里的作战半径。另外,两个翼尖分别加上了可以配备短程空空导弹的挂架,但是相对于EZ型,飞机的重量将会有六百公斤的增加。

A more powerful EL/M-2035 radar, a development of the Elta EL/M-2021B, was fitted with the Cheetah C. The radar enables the Cheetah C to be armed with the IR-guided U-Darter dogfight missile (that can be incorporated with HMS) and the R-Darter mid-range AAM. Thirty-eight of such type were produced between 1993 and 1995, converted from what rumored to be acquired from an undisclosed source (most possibly Israel). Furthermore, an engine upgrade for the aircraft has reportedly been undertaken with Russian help, which is to introduce the Klimov RD-33 turbofan engine that equips the MiG-29.

一个更强大的(EL/M-2035)雷达──发展自“幼狮”C2的埃尔塔(EL/M-2021B)的多功能脉冲多谱勒雷达,会被安装在“猎豹”C型上。这个雷达可以使“猎豹”拥有新型红外制导“U-标枪手”(U-Darter)格斗导弹(可配合头盔瞄准器)和“R-标枪手”中距空空导弹的发射能力。从一九九三到九五年期间,大约有三十八架的此型“猎豹”被生产出来,但是用来改造的“幻影”飞机的来源则未被透露(以色列的嫌疑最大)。有报道指出,一个发动机更新的计划正在进行(亦可能已完成):从俄罗斯引进用于米格-29的卡里莫夫RD-33涡扇发动机来替换旧的“阿塔”9C或9K-50涡喷发动机。

南非丹尼尔公司研制的ADART热成像红外制导导弹

    

South Africa's withdrawal from Namibia in the late 80's of 20th century had eased the border tension with Angola, followed by the replacement of the Apartheid regime in 1994, which relatively had changed South Africa's defense standpoint and budget. As a result, the indigenous CAVA fighter program was dropped, as was the SAAF's requirement to acquire 32 advanced heavy fighters. However, the Cheetah's future looks gloomy as a new aircraft procurement, which included 28 advanced light fighters, was announced by the SAAF later. A deal to acquire 19 single-seat and 9 two-seat Gripens from the Saab-BAE Systems (now Gripen International) was signed in December 1999. The first two-seat Gripen is expected to be delivered in 2006 and all 19 single-seaters in 2010. Even though South Africa's policy of keeping a low profile on its military deployment has not been altered, but we can assure that Cheetahs' service in SAAF will ultimately come to an end by the time when a more capable fighter - Gripen leads the SAAF as the dominant regional air power in the first half of 21st century.

二十世纪八十年代末期,南非终于撤走了它在纳米比亚的非法军事占领,减轻了在安哥拉边境的军事压力。在一九九四年,南非的种族隔离政府被推翻,前政府的军事政策和预算也同时受到了变更。如之前的自研CAVA战机计划,以及获取三十二架先进重型战机的计划都分别被取消。但是随着不久后宣布的一个包括二十八架先进轻型战机在内的引进计划,“猎豹”的前景仍是那么的暗淡。一九九九年十二月,一项从“萨伯-英国宇航”公司(Saab-BAe)(现为鹰狮国际(Gripen International))引进十九架单座和九架双座“鹰狮”(Gripen)的交易正式签署。第一架双座“鹰狮”将预料在二○○六年交付到南非空军,而十九架单座型亦会在二○一○年左右全部交付。虽然南非对它内部的军事部署,仍然是守口如瓶,不过我们可以肯定的是“猎豹”的服役期在不久的将来会告一段落──先进的“鹰狮”战机将代替“猎豹”,在二十一世纪初期,领导南非空军延续它在南部非洲的空中优势。

2002年,巴基斯坦空军从南非购得三架猎豹E及一架猎豹D战斗攻击机。

AIRCRAFT VARIANTS:

Cheetah C: a further upgrade of the single-seat Cheetahs; a new "Advanced Combat Wing" design for performance improvements; with a new EL/M-2035 radar and a new engine.

Cheetah D: two-seated trainer; conversion of the Mirage III-BZ, DZ and D2Z; longer fuselage and more delicate equipment; with a SNECMA Atar 9K-50 engine.

Cheetah E: single-seat interceptor/fighter bomber; conversion of the Mirage III-EZ; retains the original engine from the Mirage III; mostly retired or converted to C standard.

Cheetah R: reconnaissance fighter version; retains the recce configurations from the Mirage III-RZ and R2Z.


“猎豹”的各种型号:

“猎豹”C(Cheetah C):“猎豹”的最新型号。改良自单座“猎豹”或者不明型号的“幻影”Ⅲ(“幼狮”?)战机。机翼引入“先进战翼”(ACW)的概念,提高了飞机的性能,并采用了新的(EL/M-2035)雷达和发动机。“猎豹”D(Cheetah D):双座型教练机,改自双座“幻影”Ⅲ-BZ、DZ和D2Z等飞机。机身较长,设备比单座型要复杂。发动机改用“阿塔”(SNECMA Atar)9K-50。

“猎豹”E(Cheetah E):单座型截击/战斗轰炸机。改自单座“幻影”Ⅲ-EZ,沿用旧的“幻影”Ⅲ发动机。大多数已退役或被改成C型。 “猎豹”R(Cheetah R):侦察型战机。保留着“幻影”Ⅲ-RZ和R2Z机鼻下的侦察摄影设置。

CHEETAH E/C SPECIFICATION:

Powerplant: one SNECMA Atar 9C rated at 41.97 kN dry and 60.8 kN with afterburning; or one SNECMA 9K-50 rated at 49.2 kN dry and 70.6 kN with afterburning

Fuel: internal fuel 2288 litres; external fuel up to two 1700-, 1300-, 1100- or 625-litre drop tanks

Dimensions:
length(including probe): 15.65 m
height: 4.55 m
wing span: 8.22 m
wing area: 34.8 square meters
canard foreplane span: 3.73 m
canard foreplane area: 1.66 square meters
aspect ratio: 1.94

Load:
empty weight: 6600 kg
maximum takeoff: Weight 13,700 kg
maximum ordance: about 4000 kg

Performance: maximum level speed M2.2 (2338 km/h) at 12,000 m; maximum cruising speed 956 km/h at 11,000 m; service Ceiling 17000m


“猎豹”E/C型:

发动机:一台斯奈克玛“阿塔”(SNECMA Atar)9C涡喷发动机,干推力41.97千牛,加力60.8千牛;或一台“阿塔”(SNECMA Atar)9K-50涡喷发动机,干推力49.2千牛,加力70.6千牛

燃料载量:内置油箱2288公升;能带两个1700、1300、1100或者625公升的外挂油箱

尺寸:
机长(包括空速管):15.65米
机高:4.55米
翼展:8.22米
机翼面积:34.8平方米
鸭翼展:3.73米
鸭翼面积:1.66平方米
纵横比:1.94

负载量:
空重:6600千克
最大起飞重量:13700千克
最大起飞武载量:4000千克

性能:
最大速度 2.2马赫 (2337千米/小时),在12000米上空
最大巡航速度 956千米/小时,在11000米上空
实用升限 17000米

南非“猎豹”战斗机

南非“猎豹”战斗机

南非“猎豹”战斗机

南非“猎豹”战斗机

南非“猎豹”战斗机

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