Spainish aircraft carrier and AV-8B Harrier jump jet 西班牙航母与AV-8B“鹞”式垂直起降战斗机
In June 1987, as a private venture, BAe, McDonnell Douglas and Smiths Industries signed an MoU for the development of what was to become the AV-8B Plus. This was endorsed by the USMC, and, after much consideration, the Spanish and Italian navies developed a joint requirement for a fleet of air-defense Harriers.
The United States, Spain and Italy signed an MoU in September 1990 to define the responsibilities of the three countries and establish a Joint Program Office to manage the program. On 30 November 1990, the US Navy, acting as an agent for the three participating countries, awarded McDonnell Douglas the contract to develop the improved Harrier.