The wings are high-mounted, variable, swept-back, and tapered. There are twin turbofan engines. The air intakes are tapered away from the body, rectangular-shaped, and mounted on the body forward of the wings’ leading edges. There are twin exhausts. The fuselage is long, slender, with pointed, solid nose, and rectangular-shaped body from the air intakes to the exhausts. There are two belly fins and four pylons. There is a bubble canopy. The dorsal spine extends from the cockpit to the tail. The tail fin is swept-back and tapered with square tip. The flats are high-mounted on the fuselage, swept-back, and tapered with angular tips.
Military operators of the Su-25: Current operator Former operator Uncertain
Ukrainian Su-25UB and MiG-29C from aerobatic team Ukrainian Falcons 24 August 2009
People's Air and Air Defence Force of Angola. An agreement was reached at the beginning of 1988 between the Soviet Union and Angola that arranged for the delivery of a squadron of Su-25s. The Angolan export agreement comprised 12 single-seat Su-25Ks and two Su-25UBKs trainers. Later, these aircraft were augmented by further deliveries comprising at least three two-seater aircraft.
Armenian Air Force. Following the break-up of the Soviet Union, Armenia had no Su-25s in its inventory, but following the start of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh in 1991–92, the newly independent Republic of Armenia unofficially acquired a small number of aircraft. It operates 5 Su-25, 9 Su-25K and 1 Su-25UBK as of January 2009.
Azerbaijan Air Force. Like Armenia, Azerbaijan did not inherit any Su-25s after the collapse of the USSR, but a single aircraft was obtained in April 1992 as a consequence of a pilot defecting from the Russian Air Force base at Sital-Chai. Following the incident, Azerbaijan acquired at least five Su-25s through unofficial channels, and one more aircraft has been obtained as the result of yet another defection, this time from the Georgian Air Force. Other aircraft are believed to have been acquired later, as a 2001 inventory of Azerbaijan aircraft revealed that the Azerbaijan Air Force still had three of the type in its inventory, despite the reported loss of four Su-25s in combat operations relating to Nagorno-Karabakh against Armenia.
Bulgarian Air Force Su-25K
Belarus Air Force. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, Belarus was the second member state of the CIS, after Russia, to have a significant number of Su-25s. Seventy Su-25s and six Su-25UBs are reported to be operational and are mostly concentrated at Lida air base by 2004.
Bulgarian Air Force. Bulgaria was the second Warsaw Pact country to obtain the Su-25, acquiring its first examples of both Su-25K and the Su-25UBK in 1985. The aircraft were intended to replace the obsolete MiG-17F Fresco-C which had been the backbone of the Bulgarian Air Force fighter-bomber fleet for many years. Twenty Su-25Ks and three Su-25UBKs were commissioned and are operational at Bezmer air base by 2004.
Chadian Air Force acquired a total of six aircraft (4 Su-25 and 2 Su-25UB) from Ukraine in 2008.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In late 1999, the Tbilisi Aerospace Manufacturing plant signed a contract with the Democratic Republic of Congo for the delivery of 10 Su-25Ks to the Force Aerienne Congolaise. The deal was reported to be valued at 6 million US Dollars, and the first four aircraft were delivered on board an An-124 in November 1999. The remaining six aircraft were delivered in January 2000. One aircraft crashed in December 2006 during a routine flight, while another one crashed on 30 June 2007, during a Congolese independence day display.
In 2005, 4 Su 25s including 2 Su-25UB combat trainers were delivered to the Equatorial Guinea Air Corps. The current status of the aircraft is unknown.
Eritrean Air Force. In total, six Su-25s have been delivered to the Eritrean Air Force between 2001 and 2006. Unfortunately the exact date is not known.
Ethiopian Air Force. A pair of Su-25Ts and two Su-25UBK combat trainers were delivered to Ethiopia in the first quarter of 2000. The twin-seaters were withdrawn from Russian Air Force service and modified in accordance to a special request by the Ethiopian Air Force. Since acquiring the aircraft, the Ethiopians have used them in combat operations against Eritrean insurgent groups.
Georgian Air Force. Georgia, which with the Tbilisi Aircraft Manufacturing produced scores of single-seat Su-25s during the Soviet era, was left with virtually no aircraft following the break-up of the Soviet Union. Only a small number of single-seat Su-25s were actually brought into inventory of the newly formed Georgian Air Force, these aircraft having been left in the factory at the time of Georgian independence. Georgia had nine Su-25s of various types with of them eight Su-25KM "Scorpion"s (an upgraded version of the Su-25 in collaboration with Israel) as of 2004.
The Gambian Army operates one Su-25 as of 2008.
Iranian Air Force. On 21 January 1991, seven Iraqi Su-25s were flown to Iran in an effort to find a temporary safe haven from Operation Desert Storm attacks on major Iraqi airfields. These Iraqi aircraft were considered by the Iranians to be a gift from their former adversary, and were seized by the Iranian military. However, as a result of lack of spare parts, documentation, and pilot training, these aircraft were never flown by the Iranian Air Force. Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Air Force has added at least six new aircraft to its inventory and has since likely restored ex-Iraqi Su-25s to flight status as well.
The Kazakh Air Force received 12 single-seat Su-25s and two Su-25UB trainers in December 1995 as compensatory payment for the return of the Tu-95MS "Bear-H" strategic bombers which had been rapidly flown out of the republic at the time of the collapse of the USSR. The Kazakh Su-25s are located at Chimkent air base in the south of the country.
North Korean Air Force. North Korea was the first Asian country to obtain the Su-25. In the 1950s, the North Korean Air Force had accumulated useful experience of operating the Su-25's piston-engined predecessor, the Ilyushin Il-10 "Beast". In the period from the end of 1987 until 1989, the DPRK acquired a total of 32 single-seat Su-25Ks and four Su-25UBKs. The aircraft are based at Sonchon air base (80 km from Pyongyang), which features heavily-fortified natural hangars equipped with blast-proof doors capable of protecting the aircraft from conventional and nuclear explosions.
Peruvian Air Force. Peru received 18 Su-25s in late 1998 from Belarus, which refurbished them prior to delivery. The shipment comprised 10 single-seat and eight dual-seat Su-25UB trainers. The aircraft were all built just before the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus represented the final versions of the Soviet Su-25. It is believed that between 1998 and December 2005, at least 25 light aircraft transporting cocaine had been shot down by the Peruvian Su-25s.
Russian Air Force Su-25 in specific markings
Today, Russia possesses a reduced fleet of Su-25s, which are operated by "Shturmovoi" Assault Regiments. The major variants used are the single-seat Su-25, the twin-seat Su-25UB, and the Su-25BM target-towing version. In addition, the Russian Air Force received a small number of Su-25T anti-tank variants, which have been tested with notable success under combat conditions in Chechnya. The Su-25 is also operated by the Russian Naval Aviation, both in standard land-based Su-25 and Su-25UB guise, as well as in the specialised Su-25UTG role as a carrier-operable trainer. Overall, 245 Su-25s are in service with the Russian Air Force, including 10 being operated by the navy as of 2008. A modernisation program of single-seat Su-25s to the Su-25SM variant is underway. The first modernised Su-25SM was delivered in August 2001, while another six were delivered in late December 2006 at Lipetsk air base.
The Sudanese Air Force has one Su-25 in service as of November 2008.
Following the downfall of the Soviet Union, the newly independent Republic of Turkmenistan was given 46 Su-25s which had been disassembled for storage in Turkmenistan at that time. In accordance with an agreement between Georgia and Turkmenistan in 1999, the Tbilisi Aerospace Manufacturing corporation refurbished 45 of these aircraft for use by the Turkmenistan Air Force as payment for the delivery of natural gas. The refurbished aircraft were relocated at Ak-Tepe air base, and a total of 18 operational Su-25s are known to be based there by 2004.
Ukrainian Air Force. Ukraine obtained 92 Su-25s of differing variants following the country's independence in the wake of the break-up of the USSR. Currently, the Ukrainian Air Force operates approximately 60 Su-25, Su25UBs, and Su-25UTGs, which are operated by the 299th Independent Assault Regiment (299 OShAP) based at Kulbakino, Mykolaiv Oblast, and at Saki in the Crimea, and the 456th Assault Regiment (456 ShAP) at Chortkiv. Up to 30 Su-25s are reportedly stored at the 4070th Reserve Base. Evidently, three Su-25s sold to Macedonia came from this reserve pool.
Until 1990, a Soviet Air Force pilot training centre equipped with around 20 Su-25, Su-25UB, and Su-25BM variants was located at Chirchik air base in Uzbekistan. In 1991, a small number of Su-25s were also located at Dzhizak air base, but after 1991, all Su-25s in Uzbekistan were concentrated at Chirchik, operated by the 59th Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment (59 APIB) of the Soviet Air Force. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all the Su-25s on the territory of the now independent republic became the property of the new government.
 Former operators
Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
Cote d'Ivoire Air Force. Nine French soldiers were killed and twenty-three wounded when two Ivorian Su-25s bombed French positions in Bouaké. As a result, French soldiers destroyed the Su-25s on the ground at Yamoussoukro air base.
Czechoslovakian Air Force. Passed aircraft onto successor states, in the ratio of 2:1 in favour of the Czech Republic.
Czech Air Force. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic acquired twenty-four Su-25Ks and one Su-25UBK. In December 2000, the Czech Su-25s were retired from service and placed in storage at P?erov air base.
Macedonian Air Force. The Republic of Macedonia purchased three single-seat Su-25s and one Su-25UB following incursions and attacks by Albanian separatists. The aircraft were supplied by Ukrainian authorities after having been withdrawn from Ukrainian Air Force service. The aircraft were retired in 2004, and sold to Georgia in 2005.
Iraqi Air Force. During the course of the early phase of the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq approached the Soviet Union with a request to purchase a wide variety of military equipment. As a result, Iraq become the first non-Warsaw Pact country to obtain the Su-25K and Su-25UBK combat trainer. It is believed that Iraq received a total of 73 Su-25s, of which four were the Su-25UBK trainer. In January 1998, the Iraqi Air Force still possessed 12 Su-25s, and at least three Su-25Ks were seen in a demonstration over Baghdad in December 2002. However, the remaining Su-25s were phased out immediately after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
The Slovak Air Force received 12 Su-25Ks and one Su-25UBK following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The aircraft were based at the Slovak 33rd Air Base in Malacky-Kuchyna. They were sold to Armenia.
Soviet Air Force. Passed aircraft onto successor states.
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