More reading: Mig-27 upgrade program in India
MIG-27 is a variation of the MIG-23C optimized for the ground attack role. With a new nose, simpler engine intakes and nozzle. These limit supersonic performance, but reduce cost, weight and fuel consumption.
MIG-27 use a 11500kg thrust Tumanski R-29-300. The fire-control radar of MIG-23`s is replaced by IRST and optical equipment In the smaller nose of MIG-27. The pilot is protected well by added armor in the cockpit and the armor windscreen. One Soyuz/Khachaturov R-29B-300 turbojet, rated at 78.40 kN (17625 lb st) dry and 112.7 kN (25335 lb st) with max afterburning; fixed air intakes and two-position (on/off) afterburner nozzle consistent with primary requirement of transonic speed at low altitude; internal fuel capacity 5400 litres (1426 US gallons; 1188 Imp gallons); provision for up to three 790 litre (209 US gallon; 174 Imp gallon) external tanks.
The Tumansky R-29 is a Soviet aircraft turbojet engine that was developed in the early 1970s. It is generally described as being in the "third generation" of Soviet gas turbine engines which are characterized by high thrust-to-weight ratios and the use of turbine air cooling.
Armament of MIG-27 contains one 23mm or 1*g30mm GSh-30-6(9A621) gun and 4000kg carried pay load. With these changes, MIG-27 fits the ground attack mission quite well.
The prototype of MIG-27, the MIG-23B.
PrNK-23 nav/attack system; SAU-1 automatic flight control system; INS; SPS-141 IR jammer; RI-65 16-item vocal warning system; SUA-1 angle of attack indicator; SG-1 radar warning system; SO-69 transponder; SRO-1P IFF; RV-5R/RV-10 radio altimeters; Fone telemetry system; bullet-shaped antenna above each glove pylon associated with missile guidance.
In the early 1970s the Zvezda-Strela design bureau was developing its Kh-25L (AS-10 'Karen') laser-guided tactical missile, a successor to the Kh-23 (AS-7 'Kerry'). The Warsaw Pact air forces had a requirement for tactical anti-radiation missile for the suppression of enemy air defences (SEAD) role. When the Zvezda-Strela looked at producing a SEAD variant of the Kh-25L (Izdeliye 69) it found the missile had insufficient range to keep the launch aircraft out of the engagement envelope of NATO SAMs. The design team therefore took the basic Kh-25 configuration and changed all its internal components while also refining its aerodynamic layout. The result was a quite distinct missile variant, the Kh-27PS (Izdeliye 72). The Kh-27PS is the weapon identified by NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler' although soon after it was introduced to service it was joined by a similarly modified version of the Kh-25, the Kh-25MP. This was one of the second-generation of improved Kh-25M weapons that adopted many of the design improvements originally developed for the Kh-27PS. In the early 1980s production and development of the Kh-27PS was switched to the Kh-25MP, which was an essentially identical weapon, in both appearance and capability. Many Western sources have applied the AS-12 'Kegler' designation interchangeably to the Kh-27PS and Kh-25MP. However, they were separate designs, undertaken a different times and with distinct Russian Izdeliye (article), or product, designations. The baseline Kh-27PS was Izdeliye 72.
MIG-27 export to East Germay, Poland, Iraq, India, etc. The photo shows two MIG-27s of India airforce.
The first MiG-27, and it was the first in the MiG-27 family to have a canopy without the central frame, suggesting that the ejection seat was designed to directly break through the transparency. The dielectric head above the pylon on the MiG-23 was used on the MiG-27 to house electro-optical and radio-frequency gear instead. It was armed with a Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-23M Gatling gun. Nato reporting name: Flogger-D.
The nuclear strike variant of MiG-27, with a PSBN-6S navigation/attack system specially designed for the mission. 560 MiG-27D were built from 1973–1977 and they were on permanent stand-by alert basis like the FB-111A of the United States Air Force.
Nato reporting name: Flogger-J. This model was an upgrade of the MiG-27, with the electro-optical and radio-frequency heads above the glove pylons deleted. It was first armed with the GSh-6-23M Gatling gun, but this was later replaced by a new 30 mm GSh-6-30 six-barrel cannon with 260 rounds of ammunition in a fuselage gondola. It also received much-improved electronic countermeasure (ECM) systems, and a new PrNK-23K nav/attack system providing automatic flight control, gun firing, and weapons release. However, this modification was not very successful because of the heavy recoil from the new cannon, and bursts longer than two or three seconds often led to permanent damage of the airframe. Test pilot V. N. Kondaurov described the first firing of the GSh-6-30'!:[Need quotation to verify] "As I imposed the central mark on the air target and pressed the trigger to shoot, I heard such noise that I involuntarily drew my hand aside. The whole plane began to vibrate from the shooting and had almost stopped from the strong recoil of the gun. The pilotless target, which was just making a turn ahead of me, was literally disintegrating into pieces. I have hardly come to my senses from unexpectedness and admiration: This is a calibre! Such a beast! If you hit something — it will not be little [damaged]". A total of 150 MiG-27Ms were built from 1978 to 1983. Currently in service with the Sri Lankan Air Force.
This was an export variant of the MiG-27M provided in 1986 to India in knock-down kits for license-assembly. Same as MiG-27M except the undernose fairing for the infra-red search and track (IRST) sensor has a single window instead of several like the one on the original MiG-27M. A total of 130 were assembled by India.
This was a 1988 indigenous Indian upgrade of its license-assembled MiG-27L with French avionics, which provides the same level of performance but with much reduced size and weight.The capabilities of the aircraft are being enhanced by the incorporation of modern avionics systems consisting primarily of two Multi-Function Displays (MFDs) Mission and Display Processor (MDP), Sextant Ring Laser Gyros (RLG INSI), combined GPS/GLANOSS navigation, HUD with UFCP, Digital Map Generator (DMG), jam-resistant Secured Communication, stand-by UHF communication, data link and a comprehensive Electronic Warfare (EW) Suite. A mission planning and retrieval facility, VTR and HUD Camera will also be fitted. The aircraft will retain stand-by (conventional) instrumentation, including artificial horizon, altimeter and airspeed indicator, to cater for the failure of HUD and the MFDs.The MiG-27s are also being endowed with French Agave radar or the Russian Komar radar. The installation of the radar would give the MiG-27s anti-ship and some air-to-air capability. It is expected that at least 140 of the 180 aircraft converted from MiG-27MLs.
Nato reporting name: Flogger-J2. The MiG-27K was the final Soviet version, which added a laser designator and compatibility with TV-guided electro-optical weapons. Originally armed with the GSh-6-23M gun, but this was soon replaced with the GSh-6-30 cannon. Around 200 were built.
Mar. 19, 2011, A Mig-23 (could be Mig-23BN)initially thought of as belonging to the Gaddafi's Libyan Arab Republic Air Force (LARAF) but later officially confirmed as flown by the Free Libyan Air Force (FLAF) was shot down over the outskirts of Benghazi, eastern Libya, in the morning of Mar. 19, 2011. Explosions shook the Libyan city of Benghazi early on Saturday while what could have been the downed Mig was heard flying overhead, and residents said the eastern rebel stronghold was under attack from Gaddafi's forces in a clear violation of the ceasefire announced on Mar.18 . A No-Fly Zone will be established in the next few hours over Libya to prevent LARAF from attacking rebels (Pictures by AP Photo/Anja Niedringhaus and AFP)
More reading: Mig-27 upgrade program in India