Jaguar fighter bomber France/UK

Produced to meet a joint Anglo-French requirement in 1965 for a dual-role advanced/operational trainer and tactical support aircraft, the Jaguar has been transformed into a potent fighter-bomber. The RAF originally intended to use the aircraft purely as an advanced trainer, but this was later changed to the offensive support role on cost grounds.

Starting in the early 1960's, the French Air Force began looking for aircraft to replace its Lockheed T 33 and Fouga Magister trainers as well as its Myst鑢e IV tactical fighters. In April 1964, the Aeronautics Technical Bureau invited French aeronautics companies to respond to a preliminary design in a programme for a twin-engined aircraft to equip ECAT (School of Combat and Tactical Support).

The ECAT programme resulted in the companies Dassault, with the Cavalier, and Breguet, with the Br 121, entering into competition. On 30th June 1964, the engineering offices of Breguet, headed by Georges Ricard, submitted to the competent authorities the project Br 121, a version of the Br 1001 Taon, with twin Rolls Royce RB 172-45 engines. The project Cavalier was finally abandoned following the choice of the Breguet aircraft.

Dassault Aviation (French pronunciation: [daso]; Euronext: AM) is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets, a subsidiary of Dassault Group. été des Avions Marcel Bloch or "MB". After World War II, Marcel Bloch changed his name to Marcel Dassault, and the name of the company was changed to Avions Marcel Dassault on 20 December 1947. In 1971, Dassault acquired Breguet, forming Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation (AMD-BA). In 1990, the company was renamed Dassault Aviation.

JaguarIt quickly became apparent that the RAF also needed an aircraft that corresponded rather closely to the characteristics of the Br 121. On 17th May 1965, the two countries concluded a protocol agreement for the study and joint manufacture of a low-altitude combat and training aircraft. Responsibility fell to Breguet Aviation and the British Aircraft Corporation, under the management of the Franco-British joint-company SEPECAT (European Company for the Production of Aircraft for the School of Combat and Tactical Support). Breguet Aviation was acquired by the company Dassault in 1967.

The first prototype, Jaguar A, flew from Istres (Bouches-du-Rh鬾e, France), on 08 September 1968.

Difficulties in cooperation, due to the lack of a true main contractor, and changes in the definition delayed the Jaguar entering service until 1972. Originally a program for a trainer aircraft, it ended up as a ground attack aircraft with little in common, either in terms of size or cost, with the model initially foreseen. The French and British versions also were not identical, since each country had imposed, for its own models, nationally-sourced equipment.

In the end, a total of 573 aircraft were ordered. France and Britain purchased 403 to which were added 54, exported to three countries (Oman, Ecuador and Nigeria), and 116 to India of which 70 were produced under license in that country.
The first RAF aircraft took to the air in October 1969, and each air force placed orders for 200 aircraft - the RAF opting for 165 single-seat and 35 two-seat aircraft. Deliveries to No 226 OCU at Lossiemouth began in 1973, and at its peak the Jaguar equipped 8 front-line and 1 training squadron; Nos 14, 17, 20 and 31 Sqn at Bruggen (strike/attack), II(AC) Sqn at Laarbruch (reconnaissance) as well as the three Coltishall based squadrons (6, 41 and 54) and Lossiemouth based 16(Reserve) Sqn.

A variety of weapons including cluster, freefall, retard and laser guided bombs, as well as rockets can be carried on the four wing and one fuselage stations. Two 30mm cannon are mounted internally. To mark targets for laser-guided weapons, the aircraft carries the thermal imaging and laser designation (TIALD) pod.

For self-defence, overwing Sidewinder infra-red missiles are carried and the aircraft is fitted with a comprehensive suite of electronic countermeasures. Perhaps the Jaguar's most impressive feature is its navigation and attack system. With mission data fed into the computer, all the necessary information for a pinpoint attack is relayed to the head-up display. From the display, the pilot knows exactly where the target is located and precisely when to release his weapons for maximum effect.

The fleet is currently undergoing an upgrade program, and this will see aircraft fitted with new cockpit displays, helmet-mounted sights, the ability to carry the new Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile (ASRAAM) and other system improvements to further extend the life of the aircraft well into the next century.

The Jaguar has a long sleek fuselage with a large swept tail fin and rudder. The fuselage features a long, pointed, chiseled nose, and the body widens at the air intakes rectangular to the exhausts. Relatively short-span swept wings are shoulder-mounted on the fuselage. The internal jet engines, mounted to the rear of the cockpit, have rectangular air intakes either side of the fuselage behind the cockpit, with their top surfaces forming an extension of the wing. The engine exhausts show prominently under the forward portion of the tail. The rear jetpipes are located forward and below the tailplane which has marked anhedral. The raised bubble canopy is set above the sharply-pointed nose. The twin mainwheels of the undercarriage retract into the fuselage.

India acquired the Jaguar strike fighter to meet the IAF's Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft (DPSA) requirement to replace the Canberra and Hunter aircraft. After many years of evaluation and negotiation, the Anglo-French fighter was contracted for, an interim batch of ex-RAF Jaguars being accepted to re-equip No. 14 Squadron. IAF pilots and technicians received conversion training with the RAF and British Aerospace in Lossiemouth, Coltishall and Warton before ferrying the first Jaguars to India in July 1979.

These were followed by a batch of U.K. built Jaguars to re-equip No. 5 Squadron even as simultaneously, HAL prepared for production of the aircraft, its powerplants, avionics and accessories in India. By the mid-1980s, the Jaguar was in service with Nos. 5, 14, 16 and 27 Squadrons while a flight of No.6 Squadron was equipped with the Maritime Jaguar carrying the new generation Sea Eagle anti-ship sea-skimming missile. The Jaguar strike fighter was equipped also with Magic air-to-air missiles on unique overwing pylons, featured advanced nay-attack systems and able to carry formidable warload till the far ends of the sub-continent.

Jaguar A
Single-seat all-weather tactical strike, ground-attack fighter version for the French Air Force, two prototypes and 160 production aircraft built.

Jaguar B / Jaguar T.Mk 2
Two-seat training version for the Royal Air Force, one prototype and 38 production aircraft built.

Jaguar T2A
Jaguar T2 upgrade similar to GR1A, 14 conversions from T2.
Jaguar T2B
two Jaguar T2A aircraft given TIALD capability.
Jaguar T4
Jaguar T2A upgraded to Jaguar 96 standard.

Jaguar E
Two-seat training version for the French Air Force, two prototypes and 40 production aircraft built.
Jaguar S / Jaguar GR1
Single-seat all-weather tactical strike, ground-attack fighter version for the Royal Air Force, 165 built.

Jaguar GR1A
Jaguar GR1 with navigation, chaff/flare, ECM and Sidewinder capability upgrades, 75 conversions from GR1.

Sepecat Jaguar GR3A of 41 Sqn RAF, at Kemble Airfield, Gloucestershire, England.

Jaguar GR.Mk 1B
Ten GR1 aircraft modified to carry TIALD pods.
Jaguar GR3
Jaguar 96 avionics upgrade to GR1A/B.
Jaguar GR3A
Jaguar 97 avionics upgrade to GR3.

Jaguar M
Single-seat naval strike prototype for the French Navy, one built.
Jaguar Active Control Technology
One Jaguar converted into a research aircraft.

Jaguar International
Export versions based on either the Jaguar S or Jaguar B.

Jaguar ES
Export version of the Jaguar S for the Ecuadorian Air Force, ten built.
Jaguar EB
Export version of the Jaguar B for the Ecuadorian Air Force, two built.
Jaguar S(O)
Export version of the Jaguar S for the Royal Air Force of Oman, 20 built.
Jaguar B(O)
Export version of the Jaguar B for the Royal Air Force of Oman, 4 built
Jaguar IS
Single-seat all-weather tactical strike, ground-attack fighter for the Indian Air Force, 35 built by BAe and 99 built by HAL (Shamser).
Jaguar IB
Two-seat training version for the Indian Air Force, 3 built by BAe and 29 built by HAL.
Jaguar IM
Single-seat maritime anti-shipping aircraft for the Indian Air Force. Fitted with Agave radar and capable of carrying Sea Eagle anti-ship missile, 12 built.
Jaguar SN
Export version of the Jaguar S for the Nigerian Air Force, 13 built
Jaguar BN
Export version of the Jaguar B for the Nigerian Air Force, five built.

Builder team :
Anglo-French co-operation Dassault / BAe

Typical mission
Close Air Support (CAS), Battlefield Air Interdiction (BAI)

First flight :
March 1969

In-service in the French Air Force :
May 1969

Similar Aircraft F-4 Phantom II
Mitsubishi F-1
MiG-27 Flogger
AMX


Powerplant Two Turbomeca/Rolls-Royce Adour 104 turbofans of 7,305lb st.
Span 28ft 6 in (8.69m)
Length 55ft 2.5in (16.83m)
Height :
4.80 m
Weight : empty / maximum at takeoff :
7.5 t / 15 t

Fuel capacity :
4,200 l internal / 7,800 maximal / In-flight refuelling

Power plant / Thrust :
2 Rolls-Royce / Turboméca Adour MK 102 jet engines / 2x3,3 t with afterburner

Max Speed Mach 1.35 990mph (1,593km/h) at 36,000ft (11,000m).
Operational ceiling :
40,000 ft

Accommodation GR1B pilot only
T2: pilot and pupil in tandem.

Armament Two 30mm Aden / DEFA 553 guns
up to 10,000lb (4,500kg) stores including
Matra Magic R550 air-to-air missile ;
AS 30 laser air-to-surface missile,
laser guided bombs
Martel rockets
laser-guided bombs.

Special equipment :
Electronic counter measures, photo recce capacity with Omera 40 camera, and gyroscopic guidance

NATO interoperability :
In-flight refuelling by NATO aircraft, armament and ammunitions in accordance with NATO standards

Number of units produced :
More than 450

User Countries Ecuador
France
India
Nigeria
Oman
UK

French Air Force inventory :
40 aircraft in 2 squadrons



Programmes to upgrade two key Indian air force types, the Dassault Mirage 2000H and Sepecat Jaguar, continue to be delayed.

The Mirage 2000H upgrade is still being negotiated between the Indian government and Dassault, the air force said. Worth an estimated $2.2 billion, the programme has been pending since India announced its intention to modernise the aircraft in 2004.

A contract is expected to cover upgrades to engines, avionics, navigation systems, mission computers, electronic warfare systems and radars. To be undertaken by Dassault and Thales, the work will bring India's 51 aircraft to the Mirage 2000-9 standard. The service hopes to add 20 years of life to the aircraft, which were introduced between 1985 and 1989.

Indian media frequently attribute the long delays to the deal's cost, which would work out to roughly $41 million per aircraft. The deal was largely expected to be signed during visits by French President Nicholas Sarkozy to India in 2008 and 2010, but neither trip produced an agreement.

Unsurprisingly, the air force is reluctant about giving a ballpark date for the deal's conclusion.

Separately, the air force confirms that a request for proposals to re-engine its Hindustan Aeronautics-produced Jaguar ground-attack aircraft has been formally withdrawn. The document was issued to Honeywell and Rolls-Royce in November 2010, calling for a new engine design. The latter withdrew its bid in February, creating a single bidder situation that is not permissible under Indian procurement policy.

India's Jaguars are now powered by R-R/Turbomeca Adour 811s. The UK company had proposed upgrading these to the Adour 821 standard. The other alternative was Honeywell's F125, which is used on Taiwan's Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation-built F-CK-1 indigenous defence fighter. Honeywell told the Indian air force that the F125 has the extra thrust needed to cope with HAL's upgrades and to increase the aircraft's strike capability.

The air force has yet to announce a new RFP for the Jaguar upgrade.

General characteristics

Crew: One
Length: 16.83 m (55 ft 2½ in)
Wingspan: 8.68 m (28 ft 6 in)
Height: 4.89 m (16 ft 0½ in)
Wing area: 24.18 m² (260.27 ft²)
Aspect ratio: 3.12:1
Empty weight: 7,000 kg (15,432 lb)
Loaded weight: 10,954 kg (24,149 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 15,700 kg (34,612 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour Mk 102 turbofans
Dry thrust: 22.75 kN (5,115 lbf) each
Thrust with afterburner: 32.5 kN (7,305 lbf) each
Performance

Maximum speed: Mach 1.6 (1,699 km/h, 917 knots, 1,056 mph) at 11,000 m (36,000 ft)
Combat radius: 908 km (490 nmi, 564 mi) (lo-lo-lo, external fuel)
Ferry range: 3,524 km (1,902 nmi, 2,190 mi)
Service ceiling: 14,000 m[136] (45,900 ft)
Climb to 9,145 m (30,000 ft): 1 min 30 sec[136]
Armament

Guns: 2× 30 mm (1.18 in) DEFA cannons, 150 rounds/gun
Hardpoints: 5 total: 4×under-wing (Twin Inner pylon Fore & Aft)and Single Outer Pylon (For'd only))and 1× center-line pylon stations Fore & Aft plus 1 in the centre of the pylon for Special Weapons. with a capacity of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) and provisions to carry combinations of:
Rockets: 8× Matra rocket pods with 18× SNEB 68 mm rockets each
Missiles:
AS.37 Martel anti-radar missiles or
AS-30L laser guided air-to-ground missile.
2× R550 Magic air-to-air missiles on underwing pylons
Bombs:
various unguided or laser-guided bombs or
2× WE177A nuclear bombs
1× AN-52 nuclear bomb
Other: ECM protection pods, Reconnaissance Pod, ATLIS laser/electro-optical targeting pod, external drop tanks for extended range/loitering time

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