PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机

The Argentina Pucara combat aircraft can be traced back to the mid-1960's. The Argentina Airforce requested the Fabrica Militar de Aviones (Military Aircraft Factory) to develop a new combat aircraft capable of performing COIN, CAS and reconnaissance missions. "Pucara" is named after a form of South American stone hill fortress.

Powered by a pair of Garrett TPE331-U-303 turbo props, the first flight of the prototype AX-2 Delfin was on 20 August 1969. Subsequent prototypes turned to use the French Turbomeca Astazou XVIG turboprops.

阿根廷“普卡拉”攻击机的历史可追溯到1960年代中期。当时阿根廷空军要求国家军用飞机制造厂研制一种新型的作战飞机,用于近距遮断、近距空中支援和侦察任务。“普卡拉”一名来自南美洲土著的石头堡垒。

原型机AX-2“海豚”于1969年8月20日首飞,使用两台加勒特TPE331-U-303涡桨发动机。

后继的原型机转为使用法国透博梅卡·阿斯塔左XVIG涡桨发动机。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机The Pucara turned to be initial operational capability in 1975. Approx. 70 are in service in two countries, Argentina & Colombia. Initial production began in early 1970s and 60 were procured. This was followed by a production run of 48 more later in the 1970s. The Pucara is one of the few modern combat aircraft with turboprop power. It has two Turbomeca Astazou XVIG turboprops, max power 978 equivalent shaft hp each. It can be used on unimproved airfields and to maximize loiter time. Its slender profile and narrow fuselage cross-section reflects its "gunship" mission. In fact, Pucara is some how similar to attack helicopters.

“普卡拉”于1975年形成初步战斗力,约70架“普卡拉”在阿根廷和哥伦比亚两个国家服役。在1970年代初生产了60架,后来又生产了48架。“普卡拉”是少数使用涡轮螺旋桨动力的现代攻击机。透博梅卡·阿斯塔左XVIG涡桨发动机的单台推力为978轴马力。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机The Pucara has a low wing with no taper or dihedral on the broad center section. The two Astazou turboprops are mounted in slender nacelles in the leading edges of the wings and drive three-blade propellers. There are two fuselage tanks and a wing tank in each inboard section, total 338 US gal (1,280 liters). Up to three drop tanks can be mounted on the fuselage pylon and two wing pylons.

“普卡拉”的低单翼宽大平直,没有后掠角。两台发动机安装在机翼上小巧的发动机舱内,各驱动一个三叶螺旋桨。机身内有两个油箱,机翼内段各有一个机翼油箱,共可载1280升燃油。机身挂架和两个机翼挂架共可携带三个副油箱。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机The Pucara's narrow, semi-monocoque fuselage has a deep forward section. An armored cockpit floor protects the pilots. The g limits of Pucara is +6/-3. The stalky main landing gear struts retract forward into the engine nacelles. The nose gear retracts forward into a well ahead of the cockpit. A single-piece canopy is hinged to the rear. The pilot rides in the forward, lower seat; the rear, co-pilot seat is 10 in (250 mm) higher. The pilot has a reflector gunsight for the weapons system.

“普卡拉”狭窄的半硬壳机身的前端前伸,两名飞行员能得到装甲座舱的保护。全机过载限制为+6/-3G。主起落架向前收入发动机舱,前起落架向后收入座舱前的舱室。整体座舱盖铰接在座舱后部。飞行员坐在前方较矮的座椅上,副飞行员坐在后边升高250mm的座椅上。飞行员有良好的武器射击视野。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机The Pucara`s armament are 2 internal Hispano HS804 20-mm cannon and 4 internal FN Browning 7.62-mm guns on each side of the cockpit. Modern attack aircrafts seldom carry the machineguns because of the short range and little damage to armor targets, but Pucara is widly used in low intension mission against guerilla. On the centerline pylon, it can carry 2,205-lb (1,000-kg) weapons, as well as a 1,102-lb (500-kg) pylon under each wing, outboard of the engines, carry bombs, rocket pods, gun pods, and drop tanks.

固定武器系统包括两门希斯帕诺HS804 20mm机炮,四挺FN勃郎宁7.62mm机枪布置在座舱两侧。现代攻击机很少采用机枪,因为射程太短,威力不足以对付装甲目标。但“普卡拉”常用于对付游击队性质目标的低强度任务。在机身中线挂架上,可外挂1000千克武器。机翼发动机舱外段的500千克挂架可携带炸弹、火箭弹发射器、机炮吊舱和副油箱等。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机The IA58A is the first production 2-seat version. 108 produced for Argentina, six of which were later sold to Uruguay. Some have been fitted with an extra fuel tank in place of the rear seat, opaqued rear half of canopy. The IA58B is fitted with 30mm cannon armament in deepened front fuselage, avionics upgraded. Prototype flew on 15 May 1979, but never enter production. The IA58C Single-seat version with "broken nose" housing 30mm DEFA 553 cannon, hardpoints on outer wings for Magic 2 air-to-air missiles, existing wing pylons able to carry and launch Martin Pescador anti-ship missiles or 2 more Magic 2. Avionics include Head-Up Display, SAAB RGS-2 lead-computing sight, Omega/VLF navigation system, Identification Friend or Foe (IFF). Some IA58A Pucaras may be converted to IA58C configuration.

IA58A“普卡拉”是第一种双座生产型,阿根廷共生产了108架,后来其中6架卖给了乌拉圭。部分经过改进,在后座的后面加装了一个油箱。IA58B改进型在前机身内加装了30mm机炮,升级了电子设备。IA58B的原型机于1979年5月15日首飞,但未批量生产。IA58C单座型改进了机头,加装了30mm“德发”533机炮,增加两个外翼挂架用于携带“魔术”2空空导弹,已有的挂架能够携带马丁·佩斯卡多反舰导弹,或“魔术”2。电子设备中加装了平显,萨伯RGS-2计算机导航仪,奥米加超低频导航系统,敌我识别装置等。部分IA58A改进成了IA58C。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机 The IA66 is a IA58A fitted with 1,000-shp Garrett TPE331-11-601W turboprops and first flown in late 1980. Different nacelle with deeper ross-section and intake over propeller shaft. But this type was not placed into roduction.

IA66是在IA58A基础上改装加勒特TPE331-11-601W 1000马力涡扇发动机,1980年后半年首飞。发动机舱、螺旋桨轴处的进气口有一些不同。但此型号也没有投产。

The Pucara attacked the UK Royal Navy & Army in the Falklands War. They were mainly from the Argentina 3rd Attack Group (Grupo 3), about 24 Pucaras to Falklands. Nearly a third of the force was destroyed on the ground by special units of UK. Another quarter was lost to ground fire, accidents, and other causes. The remainder was captured when the British forces seized the Islands. Some were shot down by Sea Harrier fighter. A Pucara shot down a Westland Scout helicopter on 28 May 1982, which the only one Royal aircraft shot down by Argentina Airforce. In the San Carlos area, the Pucara attacked the HMS Ardent with rockets ripping her side open. Warships of the time relied heavily on high use of aluminum for their construction, certainly offering an inviting target for an armor-piercing rocket.

在马岛战争中,“普卡拉”袭击了英国皇家海军和陆军。这些“普卡拉”主要来自阿根廷第三攻击联队,约有24架布置在马岛。但三分之一的“普卡拉”被英军特种部队在机场偷袭摧毁(左图)。另外四分之一则因英陆军的地面炮击、事故和其他原因损失,其余被英军俘获。部分被“海鹞”战斗机击落。1982年5月28日,一架“普卡拉”击落了一架英军威斯特兰直升机,这是唯一一架被阿根廷空军击落的英国作战飞机。在圣卡洛斯地区,“普卡拉”使用火箭弹攻击了英国“阿登”号军舰,洞穿了其船舷。由于当时的战舰结构多数使用铝金属,无法抵挡具有穿甲能力的火箭弹的攻击。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机

In December 1989, three Pucaras were loaned by Colombia against drug manufacturers and smugglers. It is believed that these aircraft come from undelivered aircraft that had been held in storage. It has been reported that over 40 used Pucara aircraft are available for export and Argentina is actively seeking buyers.

1989年12月,三架“普卡拉”租给了哥伦比亚用于摧毁毒品工厂和走私船。据信这三架飞机未装备过阿根廷部队,租借之前一直库存。据报道,阿根廷希望能向外国买主出售超过40架“普卡拉”。

“普卡拉”曾试验过携带鱼雷,用以反舰用途。

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机

TPE331涡桨发动机剖视图

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机

PUCARA“普卡拉”涡桨攻击机

Weights
empty: 8,862 lb (4,020kg)
max external stores load: 3,307 lb (1,500kg)
max takeoff: 14,991 lb (6,800kg)

wing span: 47 ft 6 3/4 in (14.50m)
length: 46 ft 9 in (14.25m)
height:17 ft 7 in (5.36m)
wing area: 326.1 sq ft (30.30sq m)

never-exceed speed (Vne): 405kts (466mph; 750km/h)
max level speed: 270kts (310mph; 500km/h)
max cruise speed: 259kts (298mph; 480km/h)
econ cruise speed: 232kts (267mph; 430km/h)
stall speed, flaps and gear down at 10,560 lb (4,790kg): 78 kts (89mph;143km/h)
climb rate: 3,543ft/min (1,080m/min)
ceiling: 32,084 ft (10,000m)
radius with 3,307-lb (1,500-kg) weapons load: lo-lo-lo 121nm (140mi;225km) hi-lo-hi: 189nm (217mi; 350km)
radius with 1,764lb (800kg) weapons load and 119 US gal (450 liters) of external fuel: lo-lo-lo 310nm (357mi; 575km) hi-lo-hi 526 nm (606mi; 975km)
ferry range with full internal fuel and 459 US gal (1,736liters)
external fuel: 2,002nm (2,305mi; 3,710km)

重量
空重: 4,020千克
最大外挂重量: 1,500千克
最大起飞重量: 6,800千克

翼展: 14.50米
机长: 14.25米
机高: 5.36米
翼面积: 30.30平方米

最大速度: 750千米/小时
最大水平速度: 500千米/小时
最大巡航速度: 480千米/小时
正常巡航速度: 430千米/小时
爬升率: 1,080米/分
升限: 10,000米
活动半径(携带1,500千克武器): 225千米(低-低-低) 350千米(高-低-高)
航程(携带共1736升外挂副油箱): 3,710千米

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